|Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (help·info) (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman, Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany (Reichskanzler) in 1932.|
To many historians, Papen was also a key member in the small clique of right-wing politicians who "jobbed Adolf Hitler into power by backstairs intrigue" . He has been called a "stirrup holder" (Steigbügelhalter) for Hitler.
The central role that Papen played in Hitler's appointment as Chancellor in January 1933 was reflected by Papen's indictment at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial, though he was acquitted on formal reasons, the tribunal deciding that his "political immoralities" were not under its jurisdiction.
In 1923 Papen had received the honorary title of Papal Chamberlain from Pope Pius XI. After Pius XI died in 1939, his successor Pope Pius XII did not renew this appointment, probably in the light of Papen's political role for the Hitler régime. As nuncio, the future Pope John XXIII, Angelo Roncalli, was acquainted with Papen in Greece and Turkey during World War I. He restored this title on July 24, 1959. Papen was also a Knight of Malta.
|The Catholic Right and the Knights of Malta, in particular Baron Franz von Papen (see sidebar), played a critical role in Hitler's assumption of power and the launching of the Third Reich's Twentieth Century Crusade.|
FRANZ von PAPEN
A leading figure in Hitler's coming to power was SMOM Franz von Papen, known as "the devil in a top hat." A devout Catholic aristocrat from an old family of Westphalian nobility, a former military attache and spy against the United States in 1915, von Papen became Chancellor in May 1932, with the support of the Nazis. In June he ordered the dissolution of the Reichstag, calling for new elections in July, in which the Nazis emerged as the largest party in the new Reichstag. After a meeting with Hitler, von Papen persuaded President von Hindenberg to offer Hitler the Chancellorship, which he assumed on January 30, 1933. Von Papen became his Vice-Chancellor.
In April 1933 von Papen was elevated to Knight Magistral Grand Cross of SMOM. After the murder of Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss in Vienna in July 1934, von Papen became Hitler's Ambassador to Austria, and, in March 1938 stood by the Fuhrer's side at his triumphal entry into Vienna. From 1939 until August 1944 he was the Nazi Ambassador to Turkey, and at the Nuremberg trials he was charged with conspiracy to wage aggressive war. He was one of several Nazi leaders acquitted, and subsequently received a generous pension from the first postwar Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer.
|Franz von Papen, a [Roman] Catholic aristocrat from the Westphalian nobility and Knight Magistral Grand Cross of SMOM, paved the way for Hitler's assumption of power after von Papen became chancellor with the support of the Nazis.|
| Fascist members of the SMOM|
Grand Master Ludovico Chigi Albani della Rovere awarded the Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. He was also awared a knighthood prior to World War II.
On Dec 4, 1932 Franz von Papen was succeeded as Chancellor of Germany by Kurt von Schleicher. Determined to gain revenge on Schleicher, von Papen came to terms with Hitler (Jan. 4, 1933) and persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor. In April 1933 von Papen was elevated to Knight Magistral Grand Cross of SMOM.
Sinister Nazi and Devout Roman Catholic, Knight of Malta Franz von Papen (Front Left) heads Catholic Mass Procession.
You can see von Papen wear the SMOM "Maltese cross" insignia (see above), hence SMOM membership is proven, of and by itself. (Proof Positive)
| “In the early days of May (1936), [German Knight of Malta Franz] von Papen entered into secret negotiations with Dr. Schussnigg (Austrian Chancellor) working on his weak point [i.e., he was a devout Roman Catholic] and showed him how advantageous a reconciliation with [Nazi leader Adolph] Hitler would be as far as the Vatican’s interests were concerned; the argument may seem odd, but Schussnigg was very devout, and von Papen was the pope’s [German] chamberlain [i.e., a high official in certain royal courts].|
Not surprisingly, it was the [pope’s] secret chamberlain [in Germany – i.e., Knight of Malta Franz von Papen] who led the whole affair, which ended, on the 11th of March 1938, with the resignation of the pious Schussnigg (pupil of the Jesuits), in favor of Seyss-Inquart, chief of the Austrian Nazis. The following day [March 12, 1938], the German troops entered Austria and the puppet government of Seyss-Inquart proclaimed the union of the country to the [Nazi German Third] Reich. The event was welcomed by an enthusiastic declaration of Vienna’s archbishop, Cardinal Innitzer (a Jesuit).”
Other sites mentioning Franz von Papen as being a KoM:
Social Network Diagram:
|VON PAPEN FRANZ JOSEPH|
Germany 1914-1945 Turkey 1939-1944
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* Quigley,C. Tragedy and Hope. 1966 (432-3, 436-7)
* Seldes,G. Iron, Blood and Profits. 1934 (5, 251-2)
* Smith,B. The Shadow Warriors. 1983 (22, 216)
* Wallace,M. The American Axis. 2003 (131-2, 225)
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