Sunday, 31 August 2008

Henry Robinson Luce

Henry Robinson Luce - Creator of Time-Life Magazine Empire; Media Mogul; Skull and Bonesman

Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 – February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher.


Luce (pronounced like "loose") was born in Dengzhou, China, the son of a Presbyterian missionary and educated in various boarding schools in China and England. At 10, he was sent to the British China Inland Mission Chefoo School, a boarding school at Yantai on the Shandong coast and at 14, he traveled to Europe alone. He first arrived in the U.S. at the age of 15 to attend the Hotchkiss School in Connecticut. Luce split his time between waiting tables after school and editing for the Hotchkiss Literary Monthly, holding the position of editor-in-chief. He later graduated from Yale University in 1920, where he was a member of Skull and Bones.

Luce first met Briton Hadden at Hotchkiss while the latter was editor-in-chief of the school newspaper and Luce worked as an assistant managing editor. The two continued to work together at Yale, where Hadden was chairman and Luce was managing editor of the Yale Daily News.

Luce recalled his relationship with Hadden: "Somehow, despite the greatest differences in temperaments and even in interests, somehow we had to work together. We were an organization. At the center of our lives — our job, our function — at that point everything we had belonged to each other."

After being voted “most brilliant” of his class at Yale, he parted ways with Hadden to embark on history studies at Oxford University for a year and worked as a cub reporter for the Chicago Daily News after his return. In December 1921, Luce joined Hadden at The Baltimore News.

Nightly discussions of the concept of a newsmagazine led the two, both age 23, to quit their jobs in 1922. Later that same year the two formed Time Inc. Having raised $86,000 of a $100,000 goal, the first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923. Luce served as business manager while Hadden was editor-in-chief. Luce and Hadden annually alternated year-to-year the titles of president and secretary-treasurer. Upon Hadden's sudden death in 1929, Luce assumed Hadden's position.

Luce launched the business magazine Fortune in February of 1930 and founded the pictorial Life magazine in 1936, and launched House & Home in 1952 and Sports Illustrated in 1954. He also produced The March of Time for radio and cinema. By the mid 1960s, Time Inc. was the largest and most prestigious magazine publisher in the world. (Dwight Macdonald, a somewhat reluctant employee at Fortune during the 1930s, referred to him as "Il Luce".)

During his life, Luce supported many programs like Save the Children Federation, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and United Service to China, Inc.

Luce, who remained editor-in-chief of all his publications until 1964, was an influential member of the Republican Party. Holding anti-communist sentiments, he was an instrumental figure behind the so-called "China Lobby," and played a large role in steering American foreign policy and popular sentiment in favor of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Soong Mei-ling. Once ambitious to become Secretary of State in a Republican administration, Luce penned a famous article in Life magazine in 1941, called "The American Century," which defined the role of American foreign policy for the remainder of the 20th century (and perhaps beyond).

Luce had two children — Peter Paul and Henry Luce III — with his first wife, Lila Hotz. He married his second wife, Clare Boothe Luce in 1935. He died in Phoenix, Arizona in 1967. At his death he was said to be worth $100 million in Time Inc. stock. Most of his fortune went to the Henry Luce Foundation.

According to the Henry Luce foundation, Henry Luce III died September 8, 2005, age 80, on Fishers Island, New York, of cardiac arrest.
Henry R. Luce, Creator of Time-Life Magazine Empire, Dies in Phoenix at 68

A man of missionary zeal and limitless curiosity, Henry Robinson Luce deeply influenced American journalism between 1923, when he and the late Briton Hadden founded Time The Weekly Newsmagazine, and 1964, when he retired as head of one of the world's largest and richest publishing empires.
He was a stanch Republican, a defender of big business and free enterprise, a foe of big labor, a steadfast supporter of Chiang Kai-shek, an advocate of aggressive opposition to world Communism. He was also an Anglophile, but he believed that "the 20th century must be to a significant degree the American century."
His mother was Elizabeth Root, from a family that had earlier intermarried with the Spencers and Pomeroys. Born in Shantung Province, China, in Presbyterian mission house. Attended Chefoo School, Chefoo [Yantai], China from 1908-1912. Attended St. Alban's School north of London, England 1912-1913. Attended Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. 1913-1916. B.A., Yale University in 1920 where he was introduced into Skull & Bones. Student at Oxford University in England 1920-1921. Reporter for the Chicago Daily News and Baltimore Sun 1921-1922. Cofounded Time with Briton Hadden (Skull & Bones 1920) in 1923 with the help of J.P. Morgan partners Thomas Lamont and Dwight Morrow. Harvey Firestone, E. Roland Harriman, and various members of the Harkness family were other funders of his early media empire. Married to Lila Holz 1923-1935. Founded Fortune in 1930. Editor-in-chief, Time Publications 1930-1938. First “March of Time” radio program in 1931. First “March of Time” newsreel in 1935. Married Clare Boothe Luce, a Dame of Malta, in 1935. Founded Life in 1936. Editorial director, Time, inc. 1938. Organizer of United China Relief in 1940. Initiated the Commission on Freedom of the Press in 1944. Awarded the Order of Auspicious Star (China) in 1947. Founded House and Home in 1952. Founded Sports Illustrated in 1954. Influential member of the Republican Party. Member of the Atlantic Union. Luce was a strong opponent of Fidel Castro and his revolutionary government in Cuba. This included the funding of Alpha 66 (which was guided by the CIA). In 1962 and 1963 Alpha 66 launched several raids on Cuba which included attacks on port installations and foreign shipping. When Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, Luce's Life Magazine purchased the Zapruder Film for $150,000. Soon after the assassination they also successfully negotiated with Marina Oswald the exclusive rights to her story. This story never appeared in print, but in an interview she gave to the Ladies Home Journal in September 1988 she argued: "I believe he worked for the American government... He was taught the Russian language when he was in the military. Do you think that is usual, that an ordinary soldier is taught Russian? Also, he got in and out of Russia quite easily, and he got me out quite easily." Luce published individual frames of Zapruder's film but did not allow the film to be screened in its entirety. It was shown to the public in March 1975 which convinced many that the fatal head shot come from the Grassy Knoll (because of Kennedy's violent backward and leftward movement while the bullet is supposed to have come from the back). Writers such as Noel Twyman, David Lifton, Jack White, John Costella and David Mantik have claimed that the Zapruder Film has been tampered with. Retired from Time/Life in 1964.

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Henry R. Luce (far left o/t picture) - Knight of Malta; Member, Council on Foreign Relations; Editor, Time/Life, whose office was in Rockefeller Center across the street from Cardinal Spellman's St.Patrick's Cathedral; purchased the Zapruder Film for 150,000 Federal Reserve Notes two days after the assassination and published the notorious forgery of Oswald holding a rifle on the cover of Life magazine.

A Catholic Agenda

Among the chief agents of the papacy are the Knights of Malta. It was two very powerful Knights of Malta, William Randolph Hearst and Henry Luce that made “Billy Graham” a household name. Hearst was the founder and president of a newspaper empire, and was openly known as a liar and manipulator of information. Perhaps the most notorious example of his dishonesty comes from the story of a reporter who was sent to cover a war story. “When the reporter cabled back that there was no war in progress and that he was ready to come home, Hearst reportedly wired back, ‘Please remain. You supply the pictures, and I'll supply the war.’”1 The term “yellow journalism” was originally coined to describe his journalistic practices. This same Hearst ordered his editors to “Puff Graham,” something that Graham himself acknowledged. In a later on-camera interview, the famous evangelist appeared bewildered when describing how certain reporters had told him, “You’ve just been kissed by William Randolph Hearst.” Meanwhile, Henry Luce was the founder of TIME, LIFE, and Fortune magazines, not to mention Sports Illustrated, who in 1961 was called “the giant of twentieth-century American journalism …” by Current Biography. He was also a Yale graduate, and member of the Skull & Bones Society. Henry Luce had articles specifically written about Billy Graham, and put him on the cover of TIME magazine in 1954. The rest, as we know, is history.

It was Luce, along with Hearst who are said to be most influential in making Graham the chief spokesman of Protestant Christianity. This is odd when one considers that both Hearst and Luce were members of a devout Catholic order that openly declares its purpose is “service to … the Holy Father (i.e. the pope).”2 Was it their intent to create a kind of “Protestant Pope” to guide the beliefs of non-Catholics? Whether they intended this or not, that is exactly what Billy Graham would become.
"In 1949 [two Roman Catholic Knights of Malta] William Randolph Hearst, head of a large publishing empire, and Henry Luce, chief of another, Time, Inc., were both worried about Communism and the growth of liberalism in the United States. . . Billy Graham, an obscure evangelist [opened his poorly attended Crusade for Christ tent meetings in Los Angeles. . . in the same week Russia tested its first atomic bomb. This fresh menace gave Graham his text: "Communism is inspired and directed by the Devil himself, who has declared war against Almighty God. Did you know that the Communists are more rampant in Los Angeles than any other city in America?"]. Hearst and Luce interviewed the obscure preacher and decided he was worthy of their support. Billy Graham became an almost instantaneous national and, later, international figure preaching anti-Communism. In late 1949, Hearst sent a telegram to all Hearst editors: "Puff Graham." The editors did — in Hearst newspapers, magazines, movies, and newsreels. Within two months Graham was preaching to crowds of 350,000" (Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, p. 39 ff). Illuminus Rockefeller was supportive of Graham's New York Crusade, and his Chase-Manhattan Bank helped him out.

Billy Graham understood that a successful mass ministry would require professional salesmanship and he carefully cultivated contacts in the major media with an eye to marketing his product. He does not however, have an understanding of the faith of Jesus Christ. "Notwithstanding his professed calling, it is apparent that Graham worked the corridors of Congress as well as the private rooms of the White House, sometimes overtly, sometimes quietly, in secret letters and private phone calls. And, quite contrary to Time's assertion, it seems that Graham did more to abet segregation than to end it, actively opposing Martin Luther King Jr.'s use of civil disobedience while endorsing aggressive police tactics and punitive laws."
Henry Luce (Knight of Malta CIA and Skull & Bones member)
Many powerful Knights of Malta (controlled by the Roman Catholic Jesuit Order) have held key positions in America’s mainstream media (e.g., Henry Robinson Luce and William Randolph Hearst),
SMOM by mention:
Social Network Diagram:


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