Sunday, 31 August 2008

William Randolph Hearst

William Randolph Hearst - Founder of the Hearst Corporation; "Father of Yellow Journalism"; Media Mogul

William Randolph Hearst was the founder of the Hearst Corporation. He is considered a very dominating figure in 20th century communications and one of the leading figures of the Spanish American War period. During his career in newspapers, magazines, radio and film broadcasting, he changed the face of the way mass media would be seen throughout the world.


William Randolph Hearst was born on April 29,1863. His father was a multi-millionaire miner named George Hearst. His mother was Phoebe Hearst, a school teacher from Missouri. While Hearst was a boy, his father traveled through the West becoming partners in three of the largest mining discoveries ever recorded in American history: the Comstock Lode, Homestake Mine in South Dakota and the Anaconda Mine in Montana. These three discoveries led Hearst to his millions.

As a repayment of a gambling debt, George Hearst in 1880 accepted a small newspaper called the San Francisco Examiner. Hearst at this time was a U.S. Senator and had very little interest in the newspaper. During the mid -1880’s, Hearst’s son William, now a student at Harvard University, wrote to his father demanding to take over the newspaper. His father actually preferred William to manage the mining and ranching interests but William refused this suggestion and became the owner of the Examiner on March 7, 1887. Young Hearst showed a lot of versatility and was determined to make the Examiner popular. He nicknamed the newspaper "The Monarch of the Dailies" and acquired the best equipment and the most talented writers possible. Hearst then went on to publish exposes of corruption and stories filled drama and inspiration.

In 1895, William Hearst purchased the New York Morning Journal and entered into a head-to-head circulation war with his former mentor, Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York World. To increase circulation both started to include articles about the Cuban Insurrection. Many stories in both newspaper greatly exaggerated their claims to make the stories more sensational. Both Hearst and Pulitzer published images of Spanish troops placing Cubans into concentration camps where they suffered and died from disease and hunger. The term “Yellow Journalism,” which was derived from the name of "The Yellow Kid" comic strip in the Journal, was used to refer to this style of sensationalized newspaper articles. The American public purchased more newspapers because of this form of writing, and this strongly encouraged Hearst and Pulitzer’s newspapers to write more sensationalized stories. Some of the most sensationalized articles concerned “Butcher Weyler” and his reconcentration policies, and the Cuban Insurrection. Circulation continued to soar as the Journal reported that an American civilian was imprisoned without a trial and stating that no American was safe in Cuba as long as Weyler was in charge. Another major that enraged the American public was written by one of Hearst's reporters, Richard Harding Davis, who came upon the story while on his way back from Cuba. The reporter learned of the story of Senorita Clemencia Arango. Arango was forced out of Cuba for helping the rebels, and was supposedly strip-searched by Spanish detectives. This angered the Victorian ideals of the American public even though the story was found to be in error and that a woman searched Arango and not Spanish male detectives.

Pulitzer (left) and Hearst (right) go to war over the Spanish American War

Hearst played a huge part in arousing the public’s intention to go to war with Spain. This activity reached its zenith after several years of articles concerning the situation in Cuba, Hearst ran a series of articles blaming the Spanish for the sinking of the MAINE with a mine. Hearst’s powerful articles pushed many Americans towards war with Spain. Because of his leading role in inciting the war, Hearst was nicknamed the “Father of Yellow Journalism.”

Hearst made some very intelligent moves as he tried to out-maneuver Pulitzer. He hired Pulitzer’s writers for more money. Hearst recruited some very talented writers including Ambrose Bierce; Mark Twain; Richard Harding Davis; talented sketch artist Frederic Remington; and the writer of The Red Badge of Courage, author Stephen Crane. In spite of his success, Hearst still felt he needed to expand his business. Hearst chartered the yacht SYLVIA, fitted it out with offices, printing equipment and a darkroom. The vessel arrived off Cuba even before Maj. Gen. Shafter's Fifth Corps, and Hearst headed up his army of reporters, and took to reporting from the field himself.

In 1903, while on his honeymoon in Europe with his wife Millicent Wilson, Hearst decided to start his magazine, Motor . This lead on to an international operation known as Hearst Magazines . Today, Hearst Corp. owns 12 newspapers including the San Francisco Examiner. Hearst Corp. also owns 25 magazines including Cosmopolitan.

Hearst had similar interests to his father. Hearst was interested in politics, and elected twice to the U.S. House of Representatives. His bid to become governor of New York in 1906 failed. Hearst later expanded his business operations into radio, the first businessperson to do this. He later produced movie newsreels, again a first for newspaper publishers. Hearst developed the King Features Syndicate . This provided comic strips and text features and is now the largest distributor in the world of its kind.

William Randolph Hearst died in Beverly Hills, Calif., on Aug. 14,1951. He was 88 years old. All of his sons followed their father’s glory into media and became very successful.

Super-rich elitist William Randolph Hearst, Catholic Knights of Malta high-up, told his national newspaper chain to "puff" Billy Graham and make him a household name.
"In 1949 [two Roman Catholic Knights of Malta] William Randolph Hearst, head of a large publishing empire, and Henry Luce, chief of another, Time, Inc., were both worried about Communism and the growth of liberalism in the United States. . . Billy Graham, an obscure evangelist [opened his poorly attended Crusade for Christ tent meetings in Los Angeles. . . in the same week Russia tested its first atomic bomb. This fresh menace gave Graham his text: "Communism is inspired and directed by the Devil himself, who has declared war against Almighty God. Did you know that the Communists are more rampant in Los Angeles than any other city in America?"]. Hearst and Luce interviewed the obscure preacher and decided he was worthy of their support. Billy Graham became an almost instantaneous national and, later, international figure preaching anti-Communism. In late 1949, Hearst sent a telegram to all Hearst editors: "Puff Graham." The editors did — in Hearst newspapers, magazines, movies, and newsreels. Within two months Graham was preaching to crowds of 350,000" (Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, p. 39 ff). Illuminus Rockefeller was supportive of Graham's New York Crusade, and his Chase-Manhattan Bank helped him out.

Billy Graham understood that a successful mass ministry would require professional salesmanship and he carefully cultivated contacts in the major media with an eye to marketing his product. He does not however, have an understanding of the faith of Jesus Christ. "Notwithstanding his professed calling, it is apparent that Graham worked the corridors of Congress as well as the private rooms of the White House, sometimes overtly, sometimes quietly, in secret letters and private phone calls. And, quite contrary to Time's assertion, it seems that Graham did more to abet segregation than to end it, actively opposing Martin Luther King Jr.'s use of civil disobedience while endorsing aggressive police tactics and punitive laws."
A Catholic Agenda

Among the chief agents of the papacy are the Knights of Malta. It was two very powerful Knights of Malta, William Randolph Hearst and Henry Luce that made “Billy Graham” a household name. Hearst was the founder and president of a newspaper empire, and was openly known as a liar and manipulator of information. Perhaps the most notorious example of his dishonesty comes from the story of a reporter who was sent to cover a war story. “When the reporter cabled back that there was no war in progress and that he was ready to come home, Hearst reportedly wired back, ‘Please remain. You supply the pictures, and I'll supply the war.’”1 The term “yellow journalism” was originally coined to describe his journalistic practices. This same Hearst ordered his editors to “Puff Graham,” something that Graham himself acknowledged. In a later on-camera interview, the famous evangelist appeared bewildered when describing how certain reporters had told him, “You’ve just been kissed by William Randolph Hearst.” Meanwhile, Henry Luce was the founder of TIME, LIFE, and Fortune magazines, not to mention Sports Illustrated, who in 1961 was called “the giant of twentieth-century American journalism …” by Current Biography. He was also a Yale graduate, and member of the Skull & Bones Society. Henry Luce had articles specifically written about Billy Graham, and put him on the cover of TIME magazine in 1954. The rest, as we know, is history.

It was Luce, along with Hearst who are said to be most influential in making Graham the chief spokesman of Protestant Christianity. This is odd when one considers that both Hearst and Luce were members of a devout Catholic order that openly declares its purpose is “service to … the Holy Father (i.e. the pope).”2 Was it their intent to create a kind of “Protestant Pope” to guide the beliefs of non-Catholics? Whether they intended this or not, that is exactly what Billy Graham would become.
Many powerful Knights of Malta (controlled by the Roman Catholic Jesuit Order) have held key positions in America’s mainstream media (e.g., Henry Robinson Luce and William Randolph Hearst),
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* Allen,M.P. The Founding Fortunes. 1989 (9, 211-4, 338)
* Bagdikian,B. The Media Monopoly. 1990 (10, 42-3)
* Chernow,R. The House of Morgan. 1990 (239-40, 294)
* DiEugenio,J. Pease,L. The Assassinations. 2003 (298-9)
* Diamond,S. Spiritual Warfare. 1989 (10)
* Ewen,S. PR! A Social History of Spin. 1996 (340)
* Finder,J. Red Carpet. 1983 (80)
* Higham,C. American Swastika. 1985 (42)
* Kessler,R. The Sins of the Father. 1997 (87-8, 122-3, 214-5, 260-1, 275)
* MacArthur,J. Second Front. 1992 (233)
* Moldea,D. Dark Victory. 1987 (66)
* Quigley,C. Tragedy and Hope. 1966 (75)
* Saunders,F. The Cultural Cold War. 2000 (52)
* Seldes,G. One Thousand Americans. 1947 (201-2, 218)
* Soley,L. Censorship, Inc. 2002 (233-4)
* Summers,A. The Arrogance of Power. 2000 (83)
* Swanberg,W.A. Luce and His Empire. 1972 (119, 382)
* Vankin,J. Whalen,J. The 60 Greatest Conspiracies. 1998 (245-6)

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1 comment:

Starr said...

Thank you for all this information. I wouldbhave never known about the Satanic Christian movement if I hadn't started reading your articles a few years ago. Its a shame what lengths people will go to for wealth and fame.