Friday, 29 August 2008

Konrad Adenauer

Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer - First Postwar German Federal Chancellor

Konrad Hermann Josef Adenauer (IPA: [k?n?a:t h??man jozef a:dena?e?]), January 5, 1876 – April 19, 1967) was a German statesman. Although his political career spanned 60 years, beginning as early as 1906, he is most noted for his role as the first Chancellor of West Germany from 1949–1963 and chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1950 to 1966. He was the oldest chancellor ever to serve Germany, leaving at the age of 87.

Early life

Konrad Adenauer was born as the third of five children of Johann Konrad Adenauer (1833-1906) and his wife Helene (1849-1919) (née Scharfenberg) in Cologne. His siblings were August (1872-1952), Johannes (1873-1937), Lilli (1879-1950) and Elisabeth, who died shortly after birth. In 1894, he completed his Abitur and started to study law and politics at the universities of Freiburg, Munich and Bonn. He was a member of several Roman Catholic students’ associations under the K.St.V. Arminia Bonn in Bonn. He finished his studies in 1901. Afterwards he worked as a lawyer at the court in Cologne.

Early political career

As a devout Roman Catholic, he joined the Centre Party in 1906 and was elected to Cologne’s city council in the same year. In 1909, he became Vice-Mayor of Cologne. From 1917 to 1933, he served as Mayor of Cologne. He had the unpleasant task of heading Cologne in the era of British occupation following the First World War and lasting until 1926. He managed to establish faithful relations with the British military authorities and flirted with Rhenish separatism (a Rhenish state as part of Germany, but outside Prussia). During the Weimar Republic, he was president of the Prussian State Council (Preußischer Staatsrat) from 1922 to 1933, which was the representative of the Prussian cities and provinces.

When the Nazis rose to power in 1933, the Centre Party lost the “elections” in Cologne and Adenauer fled to the abbey of Maria Laach, threatened by the new government after he had refused even to shake hands with a local Nazi leader. The hosting of Adenauer for a year at this abbey was cited by its abbot after the war, when accused by Heinrich Böll and others of collaboration with the Nazis.

He was imprisoned briefly after the Night of the Long Knives. During the next two years, he changed residences often due to reprisals inflicted on him by the Nazis. In 1937, he was successful in claiming at least some compensation for his once confiscated house and managed to live in seclusion for some years.

According to Albert Speer in his Spandau: The Secret Diaries, Hitler expressed admiration for Adenauer, noting his building of a road circling the city as a bypass, and of a “green belt” of parks. However, both Hitler and Speer felt that due to Adenauer’s principal political views and general stubbornness, he couldn’t possibly play any role within their movement nor be helpful to the Nazi party in any way.

After the failed assassination attempt on Hitler, in 1944, he was imprisoned for the second time, being known as an opponent of the regime. But no active role in the plot could be connected to him by the Gestapo and he was released some weeks later. Shortly after the war, the Americans installed him again as Mayor of Cologne, but the British administration dismissed him for his alleged incompetence.
Adenauer was a lawyer and a member of the Catholic Center party. Became lord mayor of Cologne 1917. Became a devout follower of the Paneuropa Union, set up in 1923 by Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, son of an Austro-Hungarian diplomat. The Paneuropa was also quickly embraced by the Habsburgs, the Vatican, and the soon to be founded Opus Dei. Member of the provincial diet of Rhine province from 1917 to 1933, when he was dismissed by the National Socialist (Nazi) regime. Twice imprisoned, in 1933 and 1944, by the Nazis. Co-founder of the Christian Democratic Union (1945) and its president from 1946 to 1966. Attended the May 1948 Congress of Europe, which was convened by the United Europe Movement in The Hague. It was organized by Jean Monnet with the help of Joseph Retinger. Its chairman was Winston Churchill while Alcide de Gasperi, Paul Henri Spaak, Leon Blum, and Robert Schuman attended the conference. Chancellor of the Federal Republic of West Germany 1949-1963. Served as his own foreign minister 1951-1955. Took up Hans Globke in his secretariat and made State secretary and his most important National Security Advisor from 1953 to 1963. Globke was a former catholic Nazi collaborator (including persecution of the Jews), who wasn't allowed to join the Nazi party, because of his strong catholic affiliation. That's the only reason Globke's career (and freedom) survived during the de-nazification program right after WWII. Globke, often seen as Adenauer's Eminence Grise, brought Reinhard Gehlen in contact with Adenauer. Adenauer had also taken up Franz-Joseph Bach, a later organiser of Cercle meetings, to run his secretariat. Adenauer was hardline in his policies towards the USSR. Secretly contacted by Monnet and Schuman over the "Schuman Plan" (Monnet Plan) in 1950 to establish the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951. After Adenauer agreed, the plan went public. Negotiated the 1952 West German peace treaty with the Western Allies and obtained recognition of West Germany's full sovereignty through the Paris Pacts (ECSC) and through an agreement with the USSR in 1955. Friend of Charles De Gaulle. Received the Charlemagne award in 1954. In 1956, Adenauer chose former Nazi general Reinhard Gehlen as the initial chief of the BND, West Germany's post-war intelligence agency that succeeded the Gehlen Organization. Earlier, Adenauer had allowed Gehlen to run his Gehlen Organization, undoubtedly at the recommendation of the CIA. The political architect of the astounding West German recovery (quite possibly through the Bormann flight capital), he saw the solution of German problems in terms of European integration, and he helped secure West Germany's membership in the various organizations of what has become the European Union. One of the signers of the Treaty of Rome in 1957, which founded the European Economic Community. In 1961 his party lost its absolute majority in the Bundestag, and he formed a coalition cabinet with the Free Democrats. In 1962 a cabinet crisis arose over the government's raid of the offices of the magazine Der Spiegel, which had attacked the Adenauer regime for military unpreparedness. Resigned from public office in 1963. Adenauer received the Magistral Grand Cross personally from SMOM (The Sovereign Military Order of Malta) Grand Master Prince Chigi.

SMOM's influence in Germany survived World War II intact. On November 17, 1948 SMOM awarded one of its highest honors, the Grand Cross of Merit, to Reinhard Gehlen, the Nazi chief of intelligence on the Soviet front. He was subsequently installed by the Americans as the first chief of West Germany's equivalent of the CIA, the Bundesnachtrichtdienst (BND: federal secret service), under West German Chancellor Adenauer, a devout Catholic who had received the Magistral Grand Cross personally from SMOM Grand Master Prince Chigi.

West German Chancellor Adenauer, a devout Catholic who had received the Magistral Grand Cross personally from SMOM Grand Master Prince Chigi."
Adenauer not only was member of the SMOM he received other Papal Orders as well:
Admission to the Supreme Order of Christ, the Pontifical Order of the Golden Spur and the Collar of the Pontifical Order of Pius IX are reserved solely for reigning Sovereigns and Heads of State. They are very rarely bestowed and only then during significant state and official visits made to the Vatican City by foreign dignitaries or during a state, official or pastoral visit made by the Supreme Pontiff to foreign country.

The Supreme Order of Christ can only be bestowed on Heads of State professing the Roman Catholic faith. Among previous recipients were HE President Charles de Gaulle of the French Republic, HE President Antonio Segni of the Italian Republic, President Eamon de Valera of Ireland (right) and German Federal Chancellor Dr Konrad Adenauer.

and Knight of the Golden Spur:

On the understanding between Adenauer and SMOM Gehlen:
Turning to Germany, the ex-intelligence man had further dramatic revelations. He avowed that the US Office of Policy Co-ordination, which fronted for the CIA, had "incorporated lock, stock and barrel the espionage outfit run by Hitler's spy chief Reinhard Gehlen

"This is well known", he commented, "because Gehlen was the spiritual father of Stay Behind in Germany and his role was known to the West German leader, Konrad Adenauer, from the outset. Adenauer signed a secret protocol with the US on West Germany's entry into NATO in May 1955 in which it was agreed that the West German authorities would refrain from active legal pursuit of known right-wing extremists.

"What is not so well-known", he went on, "is that other top German politicians were privy to the existence of secret resistance plans. One of these was the then German State Secretary and former high-ranking nazi, Hans Globke".

Elaborating on this, our source said that the operation drew its main personnel from former SS and Waffen SS men during the early post-war years and that these were trained by officers of the British SIS. Later the operation was taken over by a secret wing of the Federal German Intelligence Service, the BND.
Other sites claiming Adenauer was a SMOM knight:
Social Network Diagram:
Germany 1948-1963

* Barnet,R. Cavanagh,J. Global Dreams. 1995 (71)
* Bird,K. The Chairman. 1992 (318-29)
* Bower,T. Nazi Gold. 1998 (257-8)
* Chester,E. Covert Network. 1995 (94, 122)
* Cookridge,E.H. Gehlen: Spy of the Century. 1972 (287-92, 305-6, 315-6, 346)
* Executive Intelligence Review 2006-09-22 (29)
* Green,S. Taking Sides. 1984 (161)
* Hersh,B. The Old Boys. 1992 (369-73)
* Hersh,S. The Samson Option. 1991 (123)
* Higham,C. American Swastika. 1985 (250, 253, 262-3, 267)
* Hoehne,H. Zolling,H. The General Was a Spy. 1972 (209-35, 261-2)
* Johnstone,D. The Politics of Euromissiles. 1984 (42, 60-2, 129)
* Lee,M. The Beast Reawakens. 1997 (48, 52-6, 65, 69, 80-2, 116)
* Nikitin,V. The Ultras in the USA. 1981 (145)
* Quigley,C. Tragedy and Hope. 1966 (904, 1308)
* Reese,M. General Reinhard Gehlen: The CIA Connection. 1990 (xii, 98, 120, 140-1, 165-7)
* Reuther,V. The Brothers Reuther. 1979 (343-5, 347)
* Rich,B. Janos,L. Skunk Works. 1994 (145)
* Richelson,J. Foreign Intelligence Organizations. 1988 (136)
* Sayer,I. Botting,D. America's Secret Army. 1989 (219-20)
* Simpson,C. Blowback. 1988 (115, 191, 260)
* Smith,R.J. The Unknown CIA. 1992 (183-4)
* Tully,A. CIA: The Inside Story. 1962 (156, 158, 166)
* Van der Pijl,K. The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class. 1997 (45, 71, 140, 232)
* Whitney,C. Spy Trader. 1994 (174)
* Wolf,M. Man Without a Face. 1997 (48-9, 78, 81-2, 115, 125)

pages cited this search: 126

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